The Cambridge Companion To The Quran
Edited by Jane Dammen McAuliffe 2006
Cambridge University Press
ISBN 978-0-521-83160-4

Within the past decade increasing attention has been paid to what I would call the ‘self-declarative’ quality of the Quran. In the words of one scholar, the Quran ‘describes itself by various generic terms, comments, explains, distinguishes, puts itself into perspective vis-a-vis other revelations, denies hostile interpretations, and so on’. An earlier essay made an evenmore categorical declaration: ‘theQur an is themostmeta-textual,most self-referential holy text known in the history of world religions’.
Another astute reader of the Quran remarks that the ‘abiding enigma of the text is that, along with verses that are to be construed as timeless divine pronouncements, it also contains a large amount of commentary upon and analysis of the processes of its own revelation and the vicissitudes of its own reception in time’.
The Quran’s ‘self-declarative’ or ‘self-referential’ nature expresses itself in various forms but one important expression is
found in the quranic term kitab, a common Arabic word that is frequently, but insufficiently, rendered as ‘book’. A careful collection and analysis of the 261 appearances of this word in the Quran to say nothing of the many more occurrences of its cognates – reveal multiple significations that range from the divine inventory of all creation to the eschatological record of every human deed. The Quran’s representation of itself as ‘kitab’ – its self-declaration or self-characterisation as such–is linked to these documentations of divine knowledge but in a fluid and open-ended fashion. 

The Succession To Muhammad-A Study Of The Early Caliphate
Wilferd Madelung 2008
Cambridge University Press
ISBN : 978-0-521646-96-3

Description: In a convincing reinterpretation of early Islamic history, Wilferd Madelung examines the conflict that developed after the death of Muhammad for control of the Muslim community. He demonstrates how this conflict, which marked the demise of the first four caliphs, resulted in the lasting schism between Sunnite and Shi'ite Islam. In contrast to recent scholarly trends, the author takes up the Shi'i cause, arguing in defense of the succession of 'Ali. This book will make a major scholarly contribution to the debate over succession.
This book was at first planned as monograph on the nature of the caliphate at its foundation and during its earliest phase, before establishment of Umayyad dynastic rule, with only a minimal discussion of the events and persons determining its evolution. The extreme distrust of most western historian with regard to the Muslim literacy to afew salient events whose relity, if not their interpretation, is not seriously disputed. As the research progressed, it became evident that such an approach would not do justice to the subject.
The question of the caliphate is too intricately tied to much of the internal history of the early Muslim community to be discussed without a solid understanding of that history based on more than abstract speculation. Work with tge narrative sources, both those that have been availiable to historians for a long time and others wich have been published recently, made it plain that their wholesale rejection as late fiction is unjustified and that with judicious use of them a much more reliable and accurate portrait of the period can be drawn than has so far been realized.
A History of God Second Edition
Karen Armstrong  2004
ISBN: 978-0-517223-12-3

Description : Armstrong, a British journalist and former nun, guides us along one of the most elusive and fascinating quests of all time--the search for God. Like all beloved historians, Armstrong entertains us with deft storytelling, astounding research, and makes us feel a greater appreciation for the present because we better understand our past. Be warned: A History of God is not a tidy linear history. Rather, we learn that the definition of God is constantly being repeated, altered, discarded, and resurrected through the ages, responding to its followers' practical concerns rather than to mystical mandates. Armstrong also shows us how Judaism, Christianity, and Islam have overlapped and influenced one another, gently challenging the secularist history of each of these religions.

A Muslim Archipelago Islam and Politics in Southeast Asia
Max L. Gross  2007
National Defense Intelligence College, Washington, DC
ISBN : 978-1-932946-19-2

Description : This study focuses on Islam in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand.
It is intended as the beginning of a knowledge base for policy makers and analysts.
The author was Dean of the School of Intelligence Studies at the National Defense Intelligence College and Professor of Intelligence (Middle East). The material here is organized thematically around countries and five questions: (1) How did Islam come to the country? Or how did the country come to be predominately Islamic? (2) How central has Islam (as opposed to other political ideologies) been in the political history of the country? (3) What is the offi cial policy of the current government of the country toward Islam? (4) What principal Islamist movements exist within the country (or in exile)? (5) What is the prognosis concerning the future of contemporary Islamic movements in the country? The current volume is a projected Volume One of a multi-volume study.

The New Blackwell Companion to The Sociology of Religion
Bryan S. Turner 2010
Blackwell Publishing Ltd
ISBN : 978-1-4051-8852-4
Description : In the modern world, religion, contrary to the conventional understanding of modernization as secularization, continues to play a major role in politics, society and culture. Indeed that role appears if anything to be increasing rather than decreasing and hence in recent years that has been a fl urry of academic activity around such ideas as “ political religion, ” “ religious nationalism, ” and “ post - secular society. ” In broad terms, religion appears to be increasingly an important component of public culture rather than a matter of private belief and practice (Casanova 1994 ). Of course the salience of religion in modern culture depends a great deal on which society we are looking at. Religion – in the form of Pentecostalism, fundamentalism, charismatic movements, and revivalism – appears to be flourishing in much of South America, Africa, and Southeast Asia.

The Cambridge History of Islam Volume 1A
P. M. Holt, Ann K. S. Lambton, Bernard Lewis 1977
Cambridge University Press
ISBN : 978-0-521-21946-4
Description : First published in 1970, The Cambridge History of Islam is the most comprehensive and ambitious collaborative survey of Islamic history and civilization yet to appear in English. On publication it was welcomed as a work useful for both reference and reading, for the general reader, student and specialist alike. It has now been reprinted, with corrections, and for ease of handling the original two hardcover volumes have each been divided into two separate paperbacks. Volume 1A covers the history of the central Islamic lands from pre-Islamic times through to the First World War.

The Cambridge History of Islam Volume 2A
P. M. Holt, Ann K. S. Lambton, Bernard Lewis 1976
Cambridge University Press
ISBN : 978-0- 521-29137-4
Description : First published in 1970, The Cambridge History of Islam is the most comprehensive and ambitious collaborative survey of Islamic history and civilization yet to appear in English. On publication it was welcomed as a work useful both for reference and reading, for the general reader, student and specialist alike. It has now been reprinted, with corrections, and for ease of handling the original two hardcover volumes have each been divided into two separate paperbacks. Volume 2A covers the history of Islam in the Indian sub-continent, South-East Asia, Africa and the Muslim West.

Encyclopedia of Canonical Hadith
G.H.A.Juynboll  2007
IDC and Brill NV incorporates
ISBN : 978-90-04-15674-6
Description : This encyclopedic work on Islam comprises English translations of all canonical adths, complete with their respective chains of transmission (isnds). By conflating the variant versions of the same adth, the repetitiveness of its literature has been kept wherever possible to a minimum. The latest methods of isnd analysis, described in the general introduction, have been employed in an attempt to identify the person(s) responsible for each adth. The book is organized in the alphabetical order of those persons. These are the so-called 'common links'. Each of them is listed with the tradition(s) for the wording of which he can be held accountable, or with which he can at least be associated. Within each article, the traditions are referred to in bold figures in the numerical order as they were distilled from the more than 19,000 isnds listed in Tufat al-ashrf bi ma'rifat al-atrf by the Syrian adth scholar Yusuf b. 'Abd ar-Ramn al-Mizz (d. 742/1341). Medieval commentaries as well as assorted biographical lexicons were drawn upon to illustrate the text of each tradition in all theological, social, legal and other noteworthy aspects discernible in it. Thus no details of eschatology, superstitions, miraculous phenomena, Jahili practices etc. were left without the clarifying comments of contemporary and later theologians, historians and adth experts culled from such works as the Fat al-br, a major commentary of Bukhr's a by Ibn ajar al-'Asqaln (d. 852/1448) or the commentary by Yaya, Sharaf an Nawaw (d. 676/1277) of the a of Muslim b. al-ajjj. The encyclopedia concludes with an exhaustive index and glossary of names and concepts, which functions at the same time as a concordance. In short, this work presents an indispensable sourcebook of the development of Islam in all its facets during the first three centuries since its foundation as reflected in canonical Hadith.
Islam in Europe
Aziz al-Azmeh and Effie Fokas 2007
Cambridge University Press
ISBN : 978-0-511-37032-8
Description: Events over recent years have increased the global interest in Islam. This volume seeks to combat generalisations about the Muslim presence in Europe by illuminating its diversity across Europe and offering a more realistic, highly differentiated picture. It contends with the monist concept of identity that suggests Islam is the shared and main definition of Muslims living in Europe. The contributors also explore the influence of the European Union on the Muslim communities within its borders, and examine how the EU is in turn affected by the Muslim presence in Europe. This book comes at a critical moment in the evolution of the place of Islam within Europe and will appeal to scholars, students and practitioners in the fields of European studies, politics and policies of the European Union, sociology, sociology of religion, and international relations. It also addresses the wider framework of uncertainties and unease about religion in Europe.

Islamic Philosophy from its Origin to The Present
Sayyed Hossein Nasr  2006
State University of New York Press
ISBN : 978-0-7914-6799-2
In the present work we turn our gaze specifically upon philosophy and especially Islamic philosophy. We deal with over a millennium of Islamic philosophy, its doctrines, history, and approaches, from the angle of vision of the relation between that long philosophical tradition and the realities of prophecy that have always dominated the horizon of the Islamic cosmos and the intellectual climate and space of the Islamic people. Some of the chapters of this book were
written as essays over the years. They have all been thoroughly revised and integrated into the framework of this book.
Many other chapters are new and were written specifically as integral parts of the present work in order to complete the picture that we have sought to depict in the pages that follow.

The Messenger of God MUHAMMAD
M Fathullah Gulen 2005
The Light Inc. Izmir Turkey
ISBN : 00-010842
Prophet Muhammad is the pride of humanity. For the past 14 centuries, many thinkers, philosophers, scientists, and scholars, each a radiant star in our intellectual world, have stood behind him in respect and admiration, and taken pride in belonging to his community.
It is enough to appreciate and understand his greatness that even after so many antagonism (toward religion), we still hear the words “I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of God” from minarets five times a day. We rejoice while his name is being proclaimed from minarets, as do the dead and other spiritual beings. Despite concerted efforts to corrupt our young people and lead them astray, they continue to hasten to him, although they cannot perceive the full reality of Muhammad.

Rituals of Islamic Monarchy Accession and Succession in the First Muslim Empire
Andrew Marsham 2009
Edinburgh University Press
ISBN : 978-0-7486-2512-3
This book is a history of the rituals by which the first Muslim monarchs were formally acknowledged.Like the Christian Roman emperor and the Iranian King of Kings, the caliph of the first Muslim empire was acclaimed by his followers and received oaths of allegiance from them. He appeared before them enthroned in both religious and royal settings, bearing the insignia of his office. That the caliph was a ‘monarch’, and in some senses a ‘king’, perhaps does not need to be restated.
However, the emphasis in much of Islamic political thought on the notion of ‘kingship’ (mulk) as mere earthly, or temporal power, in contrast to the legitimate authority of the ‘caliphate’ (khilāfa), which is derived from God, can obscure the important continuities between caliphal authority and that of ancient Near Eastern monarchy. Because of this distinction in the Islamic tradition, ‘monarchy’ is probably a better description of the caliphate than ‘kingship’; it encompasses the shared cultural heritage with ancient Near Eastern rulership, while acknowledging the distinctive semantic and conceptual transformations of that heritage that took place in Islam.

The Birth of The Prophet Muhammad-Devotional Piety in Sunni Islam
Marion Holmes Katz 2007
ISBN : 978-0-2039-6214-1
In the medieval period, the birth of the Prophet Muhammad (the mawlid) was celebrated in popular narratives and ceremonies that expressed the religious agendas and aspirations of ordinary Muslims, including women. This book examines the Mawlid from its origins to the present day and provides a new insight into how an aspect of everyday Islamic piety has been transformed by modernity. The book gives a window into the religious lives of medieval Muslim women, rather than focusing on the limitations that were placed on them and shows how medieval popular Islam was coherent and meaningful, not just a set of deviations from scholarly norms. Concise in both historical and textual analysis, this book is an important contribution to our understanding of contemporary Muslim devotional practices and will be of great interest to postgraduate students and researchers of Islam, religious studies and medieval studies.

The Islamic Middle East-Tradition and Change
Charles Lindholm 2002
ISBN : 1-4051-0146-6
The Islamic Middle East is a rare, thought-provoking account of the origins, nature, and evolution of Islam that provides a historical perspective vital to understanding the contemporary Middle East. The middle East has atits core many of the values that are presently believed to be essential characteristics of the modern western world:egalitarian, individualism, pluralism, competitiveness, calculating rationally, personal initiative, socoal mobility, freedom: but these are set within a distinctive historical context based upon chivalric honor, female seclusion, and patrilineality and that also favored inviduous distinctions betwen men and women,whites and black, tribesman and peasants, nobles and commoners, free men and slaves.

The Venture of Islam - Volume 1 : The Classical Age of Islam
Marshal G.S. Hodgson 1977
The University of Chicago Press
ISBN : 978-0-2263-4685-4
The Classical Age of Islam, analyzes the world before Islam, Muhammad's challenge, and the early Muslim state between 625 and 692. Hodgson then discusses the cla>ssical civilization of the High Caliphate. The volume also contains a general introduction to the complete work and a foreword by Reuben Smith, who, as Hodgson's colleague and friend, finished the Venture of Islam after the author's death and saw it through to publication.

The Venture of Islam - Volume 2 : The Expansion of Islam in The Middle Periods
Marshal G.S. Hodgson 1977
The University of Chicago Press
ISBN : 978-0-2263-4684-6
The Venture of Islam has been honored as a magisterial work of the mind since its publication in early 1975. In this three-volume study, illustrated with charts and maps, Hodgson traces and interprets the historical development of Islamic civilization from before the birth of Muhammad to the middle of the twentieth century. This work grew out of the famous course on Islamic civilization that Hodgson created and taught for many years at the University of Chicago.
In the second work of this three-volume set, Hodgson investigates the establishment of an international Islamic civilization through about 1500. This includes a theoretical discussion of cultural patterning in the Islamic world and the Occident. "This is a nonpareil work, not only because of its command of its subject but also because it demonstrates how, ideally, history should be written." The New Yorker.

The First Dynasty of Islam The Umayyad Caliphate AD 661-750 Second Edition
G.R.Hawting 2000
ISBN : 978-0-4152-4072-7
Gerald Hawtings book has long been acknowledged as the standard introductory survey of this complex period in Arab and Islamic history. Now it is once more made available, with the addition of a new Introduction by the author which examines recent significant contributions to scholarship in the field.

Arabia and the Arabs From the Bronze Age to the Coming of Islam 
Robert G Hoyland 2001
ISBN  978-0-4151-9534-9
Knowledge of pre-Islam Arabia is essential for anyone seeking to understand how Islam arose and the shape it took. Further, knowledge of the cultures, commerce, and conflicts of the Mediterranean from the Bronze Age to Muhammed is fatally incomplete without the inclusion of the Arabs and the vital role they played. Arabia and the Arabs provides the only up-to-date, one volume survey of the region and its peoples during this period.
Using a wide range of sources--inscriptions, poetry, histories, and archaeological evidence--Robert Hoyland explores the main cultural areas of Arabia, from ancient Sheba in the south, to the desert oases of the north. He meticulously traces the major themes in the: economy, society, religion, art and architecture, language and literature, Arabhood and Arabisation.
The text is supplemented by over 50 photographs, drawings, and maps

The Cambridge Companion to Classical Islamic Theology
Edited by Tim Winter 2008
Cambridge University Press
ISBN 978-0-521-78058-2
This series of critical reflections on the evolution and major themes of pre-modern Muslim theology begins with the revelation of the Koran, and extends to the beginnings of modernity in the eighteenth century. The significance of Islamic theology reflects the immense importance of Islam in the history of monotheism, to which it has brought a unique approach and style, and a range of solutions which are of abiding interest. Devoting especial attention to questions of rationality, scriptural fidelity, and the construction of 'orthodoxy', this volume introduces key Muslim theories of revelation, creation, ethics, scriptural interpretation, law, mysticism, and eschatology. Throughout the treatment is firmly set in the historical, social and political context in which Islam's distinctive understanding of God evolved. Despite its importance, Islamic theology has been neglected in recent scholarship, and this book provides a unique, scholarly but accessible introduction.

The Cambridge Companion to Atheism
Edited by Michael Martin 2007
Cambridge University Press
ISBN 978-0-521-84270-9
A reference work on atheism intended for students and nonspecialists. Its eighteen authors include eleven writers from philosophy, three from religious studies, and one each from sociology, anthropology, psychology, and law. Quite well organized, the book has three chapters on Background, nine on The Case Against Theism, and six on Implications. It is often interesting and stimulating, and contains a good deal of useful material. But its chapters are of uneven quality, and some will be tough going for beginners. The book also features some internal tensions (perhaps the inevitable result of such a diverse set of contributors). These tensions are not in themselves disturbing and could even be pedagogically useful.

The Cambridge Companion to Orthodox Christian Theology
Edited by Elizabeth Theokritoff 2009
Cambridge University Press
ISBN 978-0-521-68338-6
Orthodox Christian theology is often presented as the direct inheritor of the doctrine and tradition of the early Church. But continuity with the past is only part of the truth; it would be false to conclude that the eastern section of the Christian Church is in any way static. Orthodoxy, building on its patristic foundations, has blossomed in the modern period. This volume focuses on the way Orthodox theological tradition is understood and lived today. It explores the Orthodox understanding of what theology is: an expression of the Church's life of prayer, both corporate and personal, from which it can never be separated. Besides discussing aspects of doctrine, the book portrays the main figures, themes and developments that have shaped Orthodox thought. There is particular focus on the Russian and Greek traditions, as well as the dynamic but less well-known Antiochian tradition and the Orthodox presence in the West.

The God Debates-a 21st century guide for atheists and believers
Author John R. Shook 2010
ISBN 978-1-444-33641-2
The God Debates presents a comprehensive, non-technical survey of the quest for knowledge of God, allowing readers to participate in a debate about the existence of God and gain understanding and appreciation of religion?s conceptual foundations.
1.Explains key arguments for and against God's existence in clear ways for readers at all levels
2.Brings theological debates up to the present with current ideas from modernism, postmodernism, fideism, evidentialism, presuppositionalism, and mysticism
3. Updates criticism of theology by dealing with the latest terms of the God debates instead of outdated caricatures of religion
4. Helps nonbelievers to learn important theological standpoints while noting their shortcomings
5. Encourages believers and nonbelievers to enjoy informed dialogue with each other
6. Concludes with an overview of religious and nonreligious worldviews and predictions about the future of faith and reason